The C60FAS containing hydrated single C60 molecules and C60 clusters with size up to ~2.8 nm without showing direct cytotoxicity at low single therapeutic dose of 5 mg/kg demonstrates the inhibition of growth of transplanted tumor (antitumor effect):
The maximum therapeutic effect was determined as 76.5% in Experiment 1 and 25.1% in Experiment 2.
The increase of animal life span by 21.8% was found in Experiment 2.
The metastasis inhibition index was obtained as 48% (antimetastatic effect, Experiment 3).
Finally, the anticancer affect of C60FAS was confirmed by histological data for the animal tumors of control and investigated group in Experiment 3.
The obtained results can be explained as a result of the high antioxidant activity of C60 fullerenes, neutralizing excess reactive oxygen species in the cell, and possibly blocking the specific cell receptors, for example, endothelial growth factor receptors.
The proposed method of C60FAS application for the inhibition of tumor growth is promising for experimental oncology and may be tested in the future studies.
Adding to this comprehensive review of the potent anticancer properties of С60 fullerenes, it's essential to highlight the potential implications for cancer research and therapy. The promising results yielded by this study, particularly the significant inhibition of tumour growth and metastasis, showcase the potential of С60 fullerenes as an alternative therapeutic approach in oncology. Even more fascinating is the underlying mechanism attributed to the high antioxidant activity of С60 fullerenes.
How these fullerenes effectively neutralize the excess reactive oxygen species within the cellular environment, consequently stymying the uncontrolled cell proliferation characteristic of cancers could revolutionize how we understand and approach cancer treatment. It's also worth considering the potential of С60 fullerenes to block specific cell receptors, such as endothelial growth factor receptors. This could potentially halt the creation of new blood vessels that feed growing tumours - a process known as angiogenesis, which is a critical factor in cancer progression.
This opens up new avenues for research in experimental oncology and beyond. Using С60 fullerenes for tumour growth inhibition doesn't just promise more effective cancer treatments. Still, it could also pave the way for a better understanding of cancer biology, leading to preventative strategies in the future. The promising findings of this study make it a milestone in cancer research, a beacon for researchers aiming to demystify this devastating disease.